کودکان و نوجوانان از دیرباز مخاطبان اصلی افسانهها و قصهها بودهاند. قصهها با پاسخگویی غیرمستقیم به نیازها و پرسشهای کودکان و بارور ساختن قوه تخیل آنها به عنوان منبع اصلی آموزش مهمترین نکتههای اخلاقی، فرهنگی، اجتماعی و... برای کودکان شناخته میشوند. در صورت استفاده درست از قصهها میتوان بسیاری از نکات لازم جهت پیشگیری از بزهکاری و بزهدیده شدن کودکان را به آنها آموزش داد. در این صورت چه در زمان کودکی و چه در بزرگسالی قصهها کارکردی پیشگیرانه از خود بروز میدهند. مقاله پیشرو بر آن است تا به بررسی مهمترین قصهها در کتاب «داستانهای کهن ایرانی» پرداخته تا از این راه به قابلیتها و کارکردهای موجود آنها در عرصه پیشگیری بپردازد. این پژوهش با روش تحلیل محتوا از بکسو در صدد یافتن درون مایههای اصلی قصههای ایرانی و بیان میزان قابلیت آنها برای استفاده به عنوان ابزاری برای پیشگیری از بزهکاری و بزهدیدگی کودکان میباشد و از سوی دیگر به عدم توجه نسبت به این ظرفیت پیشگیرانه در وادی عمل اشاره و آن را مورد نقد قرار میدهد.
عنوان مقاله [English]
Iranian stories from the perspective of prevention in the field of children"From theoretical capacity to practical use"
: Statement of the problem: since children and teenagers can be the audience of the legislator, they have the possibility of entering the field of criminal law regarding delinquency, and in terms of special physical and emotional conditions; They are exposed to all kinds of injuries, especially physical, sexual and mental. Regardless of the mentioned conditions, some children and teenagers are more exposed to delinquency and victimization due to dangerous situations, and if these conditions are not resolved, they will fall into the trap of delinquency or victimization in the near future. This category is referred to as "children at risk" in the criminal law of children and teenagers, Since children and teenagers can be the audience of the legislator, they have the possibility to enter the field of criminal law regarding delinquency. They are in terms of special physical and emotional conditions; They are exposed to all kinds of victimizations, especially physical, sexual and mental.
Regardless of the mentioned conditions, some children and teenagers are more exposed to delinquency and victimization due to dangerous situations, and if these conditions are not resolved, they will fall into the trap of delinquency or victimization in the near future. This category is referred to as "children at risk" in the criminal law of children and teenagers.
In the meantime, growth-oriented prevention is one of the sub-branches of social prevention, with a little tolerance and a more general look focused on the types of children mentioned above. This type of prevention, with its intervention, on the one hand, prevents children from delinquency and victimization, and on the other hand, it prevents delinquency from becoming chronic and the continuation of victimization in them. One of these intervention programs, considering the capacity of Iranian stories in the field of growth-oriented prevention, can be "story therapy" or "story-based programs", in order to prevent the formation and continuation of delinquency and victimization of children and adolescents.
In this way, the upcoming article aims to examine the most important stories in the book of ancient Iranian legends, written by Fazlollah Mohtadi "Sobhi", and clarify their capabilities and functions in the field of prevention. Also, following the investigation of the level of attention of Iranian policymakers to this capability in the field of prevention, it will also pay attention.
Method: The approach and method used in this article is based on the "content analysis" method. The meaning of this method in the field of human sciences is to know the relationship between the sentences and to look at the whole text in order to know the main messages hidden in it. In other words, in this method, their hidden and underlying meanings can be understood from the appearance of the words in the writings.
Conclusions and findings: The findings of the present research show the high capacity of Iranian stories to be used in the field of preventing children and teenagers from delinquency and victimization, because children have long been the main audience of legends and stories. By indirectly responding to children's needs and questions and making their imagination fertile, stories are known as the main source of teaching the most important human, moral, social, legal, cultural, etc. points for children and teenagers.
If stories are used correctly, children and teenagers can be taught many tips to prevent delinquency and victimization. In this case, both during childhood and adulthood, stories have a preventive function. Such an issue shows itself in the field of delinquency by focusing on teaching social values and beliefs, recognizing needs and managing them, and empowering individuals and society through stories.
In the field of victimization, stories can increase general and specific awareness and teach effective skills in their audience, and thus be effective in preventing victimization. Despite such wide capabilities in the field of action, educational actors such as education and the center for intellectual development of children and adolescents and culture-creating actors such as radio and television have neglected this issue and limited the implemented programs, and the only creative approach of some people is showing. Therefore, the lack of proper attention of the policy makers of the Islamic Republic of Iran to this preventive capacity in the field of action in an organized and scientific manner deserves serious criticism.
Authors Contributions: Dr. Amin Jafari, as the first author, designed the general framework and ideation for the purpose of writing and revising the article, and Ali Moulabigi, as the responsible author, collected the content, analyzed the content, submitted and edited the research. The results and findings of the recent research have been discussed by the authors and the final version is approved by both authors.
Acknowledgments: The authors would like to express their gratitude to all those who helped to improve this idea during the writing and editing of the article.
Conflict of interest: In this study, no conflict of interest was reported by the authors.
Funding: This research has not received any financial support from governmental or non-governmental organizations for the purpose of implementing the project.