پاکسازی قومی مسلمانان میانمار؛ جنایت علیه بشریت یا نسل کشی؟

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای حقوق بین الملل عمومی دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد خوراسگان(اصفهان)

2 استادیار گروه حقوق بین الملل دانشگاه اصفهان

چکیده

از چندین دهه پیش تا کنون، اقلیت قومی روهینگیا در ایالت آراکان شمالی کشور میانمار از نقض شدید حقوق بشر رنج می برند. صدها هزار نفر از آنان به کشور بنگلادش فرار کرده اند و در آنجا در شرایط سختی سکونت دارند. این مقاله نشان می دهد که هدف از چنین اقداماتی پاکسازی قومی مسلمانان از ایالت آراکان می باشد. پاکسازی قومی به معنی یکنواخت سازی قومی یک منطقه از طریق انتقال اجباری و سازمان یافته افراد متعلق به گروه قربانی از آن منطقه می باشد.طبق حقوق بین الملل کیفری،مفهوم پاکسازی قومی از یک طرف با جنایات علیه بشریت (تبعید و انتقال اجباری) و از طرف دیگر با نسل کشی مرتبط است. شواهد موجود در خصوص کشتار و خشونت علیه مسلمانان روهینگیا در ایالت آراکان اثبات می نماید که این پاکسازی قومی بیش از صرف انتقال اجباری مسلمانان از سرزمین شان بوده و بخشی از اقدامات عمدی جهت نابودسازی و ارتکاب نسل کشی علیه آنان می باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Ethnic-cleansing of Myanmar's Muslims; Crimes against humanity or genocide?

نویسندگان [English]

  • alireza roostayie 1
  • alireza arashpur 2
چکیده [English]

For decades from now, the Rohingya ethnic minority has endured grave human rights violations in North Arakan State’s of Myanmar. Hundreds of thousands have fled across the border to Bangladesh towards harsh conditions of life.This paper indicates that it can be said with any degree of certainty that the intent behind such actions is to ethnically cleanse North Arakan State.Ethnic-cleansing means “rendering an area ethnically homogenous by using force or intimidation to remove persons of given groups from the area”. According to international criminal law, the concept of ethnic cleansing on the one hand with crimes against humanity (deportation and forcible transfer) and on the other hand is associated with genocide. However, the growing body of evidence on killing and violence against RohingyaMuslims in Rakhine State demonstrates that this ethnic-cleansing is more than simply the removal of the Rohingya from the land, but is part of a deliberate process of destruction of the Rohingya people and commissionof genocide against them.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • The Rohingya ethnic minority
  • Forced transfer
  • Deportation
  • international criminal law
 
یارﻮﺷ ﻪﺑ نآ عﺎﺟرا هﻮﺤﻧ و رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ رد ﺮﺸﺑ قﻮﻘﺣ ﺖﯿﻌﺿو» .(1387) ﻦﺴﺤﻣ ،ﯽﻧﺎﻣز ﺪﯿﻣا -
.91-104 ،(2) ،ﯽﻠﻠﻤﻟاﻦﯿﺑ تﺎﻌﻟﺎﻄﻣ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ .«ﺖﯿﻨﻣا
،ناﺮﻬﺗ .ﺮﺻﺎﻌﻣ ﻞﻠﻤﻟاﻦﯿﺑ قﻮﻘﺣ مﺎﻈﻧ رد ﯽﮕﻨﻫﺮﻓ ﯽﺸﮐﻞﺴﻧ .(1395) ﺎﺿﺮﯿﻠﻋ ،ﯽﺋﺎﺘﺳور -
.ﻞﮕﻨﺟ تارﺎﺸﺘﻧا
ﻪﻨﯾدﺎﻬﻧ ﯽﺘﺳﺮﭘداﮋﻧ و ﯽﺸﮐﻞﺴﻧ :رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ رد ﯽﯾادﻮﺑ ﻢﺴﯿﻟﺎﻧﻮﯿﺳﺎﻧ» .(1392) ﮓﻧوﺎﻣ ،ﯽﻧرز  -
.125-132 ،(119 و 118) ،بﺮﻏ ﺖﺣﺎﯿﺳ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻫﺎﻣ ،یﺮﻫﺎﻃ داﻮﺟ ﻪﻤﺟﺮﺗ .«ﺎﯿﮕﻨﯿﻫور نﺎﻧﺎﻤﻠﺴﻣ ﻪﯿﻠﻋ
.ﻢﻠﻋ رﻮﻧ تارﺎﺸﺘﻧا ،ناﺪﻤﻫ .ﻞﻠﻤﻟاﻦﯿﺑ قﻮﻘﺣ رد ﺎﻫﺖﯿﻠﻗا زا ﺖﯾﺎﻤﺣ .(1385) رﺎﺘﺳ ،یﺰﯾﺰﻋ -
نﺎﺒﮑﺗﺮﻣ تازﺎﺠﻣ ﻮﺗﺮﭘ رد ﺎﻫﺖﯿﻠﻗا ﺖﯾدﻮﺟﻮﻣ ﻖﺣ زا ﺖﯾﺎﻤﺣ» .(1386) رﺎﺘﺳ ،یﺰﯾﺰﻋ  -
ﯽﺳﺎﯿﺳ مﻮﻠﻋ و قﻮﻘﺣ هﺪﮑﺸﻧاد ﻪﻠﺠﻣ ،قﻮﻘﺣ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻠﺼﻓ .«ﯽﻠﻠﻤﻟاﻦﯿﺑ ﯽﯾﺎﻀﻗ یﻪﯾور رد ﺪﯿﺳﻮﻧژ
.160-125 ،(4) ،37 هرود ،ناﺮﻬﺗ هﺎﮕﺸﻧاد
رد ﺖﯿﻨﻣا یارﻮﺷ یاﺮﺑ ﯽﻧﻮﻣزآ ،رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ ناﺮﺤﺑ» .(1392) ﻪﯿﺿﺮﻣ ،یرﺪﻨﻠﻗ ؛ﻪﻤﻃﺎﻓ ،رﻮﭘ ﺢﺘﻓ  -
.157-183 ،(23) ،ﯽﻗﻮﻘﺣ یﺎﻫﺶﻫوﮋﭘ ﻪﻠﺠﻣ .«ﯽﻠﻠﻤﻟاﻦﯿﺑ ﯽﻗﻮﻘﺣ ﻢﻈﻧ بﻮﭼرﺎﻬﭼ
نﺎﻧﺎﻤﻠﺴﻣ ﻪﻌﻣﺎﺟ و ﮓﻨﻫﺮﻓ ،ﺎﯿﻓاﺮﻐﺟ ،ﺦﯾرﺎﺗ ﺮﺑ یرﺬﮔ» .(1391) ﺎﺿﺮﻣﻼﻏ ،هراوز ﯽﻠﮔ  -
.803-813 ،(11) ،52 لﺎﺳ ،مﻼﺳا ﺐﺘﮑﻣ زا ﯽﯾﺎﻬﺳرد ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻫﺎﻣ .«(4)(ﻪﻣﺮﺑ) رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ
.50-53 ،(128) .«رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ رد نﺎﻧﺎﻤﻠﺴﻣ» .(1394) ﺮﺘﺴﮔنﺎﻬﺟ ﻪﻣﺎﻨﻫﺎﻣ  -
کﺎﭘ ﻦﺴﺤﻣ ﺎﺑ ﻮﮕﺘﻔﮔ ،رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ ﺖﻟود ﺖﯾﺎﻤﺣ ﺎﺑ نﺎﻧﺎﻤﻠﺴﻣ رﺎﺘﺸﮐ» .(1391) هﺮﺠﻨﭘ ﻪﻣﺎﻧﻪﺘﻔﻫ -
.44-45 ،(143) ،4 لﺎﺳ .«ﺖﺳا نﺎﯾﺮﺟ رد ﻪﮐ یاﻪﻌﺟﺎﻓ و رﺎﻤﻧﺎﯿﻣ هرﺎﺑرد ﻦﯿﯾآ
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