ارزیابی سازوکارهای سنتی اجرای عدالت در جوامع انتقالی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

عضو هیات علمی دانشگاه گیلان

چکیده

سازوکارهای سنتی اجرای عدالت، اخیراً، درکنار سایر سازوکارهای کیفری و غیرکیفری در جوامع انتقالی از جمله موزامبیک، روآندا، اوگاندا و سیرالئون، جهت اجرای عدالت نسبت به تخلفات ارتکابی در دوران رژیم‌های پیشین و یا جنگ‌های داخلی استفاده شده است. با این وجود، در خصوص شیوه بهره‌برداری از این سازوکارها در راستای تحقق عدالت، اختلاف نظر وجود دارد: برخی بر این عقیده هستند که اجرای عدالت نسبت به آن دسته از تخلفاتی که جرمی بین‌المللی محسوب می‌شوند، مستلزم اجرای عدالت کیفری است و لذا لازم است سازوکارهای سنتی با موازین عدالت کیفری منطبق گردند. در این راستا سازوکار سنتی روآندا با تغییرات بنیادینی مواجه شده است. در مقابل، برخی جوامع انتقالی از جمله موزامبیک و اوگاندا بدون اعمال تغییرات بنیادین، سعی در حفظ چارچوب سازوکارهای سنتی و استفاده از آن‌ها داشته‌اند. در این مقاله، ضمن بررسی نظریات رقیب، با استناد به شواهد، بیان خواهیم داشت که سازوکارهای سنتی، بدون اعمال تغییرات بنیادین در تحقق عدالت در جوامع انتقالی موفق عمل کرده‌اند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Evaluation of Traditional Justice Mechanisms in Transitional Societies

نویسنده [English]

  • Mahin Sobhani
Assistant Professor of International Law, Faculty of Humanities, The University of Guilan
چکیده [English]

Traditional justice mechanisms, mechanisms that are used recently along with other criminal and non-criminal mechanisms for doing justice in transitional societies. Transitional societies such as Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda and Sierra Leone, used these mechanism for doing justice to violations that committed during the past regimes or civil wars. However, there is disagreement on the method of the use of these traditional justice mechanisms to achieve justice: Some believe that doing justice to international crimes imply criminal justice. In this regard, it is necessary to change these mechanisms to adapt with the principles of criminal justice. In this context, the traditional justice mechanism in Rwanda faced with fundamental changes and like a criminal court, prosecute and punish perpetrators of international crimes. In contrast, other transitional societies such as Mozambique and Uganda, without such fundamental changes use them. This paper, with examining competing theories, argues that traditional justice mechanisms, without fundamental changes in transitional societies have been successful.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "Transitional Justice"
  • "Restorative Justice"
  • "Criminal Justice"
  • "Traditional Justice Mechanisms"
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